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Glossary of Terms

Icon Meanings

When you see the following icons on our website, they mean the following: 

A personal note from Christina is inlcuded. 

Information for physicians or physican office's icon





ADL (Activities of Daily Living): 

The things we normally do in daily living including any daily activity we perform for self-care such as feeding ourselves, bathing, dressing, grooming, work, homemaking, and leisure. The ability or inability to perform ADLs can be used as a very practical measure of ability/disability in many disorders.


Basic ADLs consist of self-care tasks that include, but are not limited to:

  • Bathing and showering

  • Personal hygiene and grooming (including brushing/combing/styling hair)

  • Dressing

  • Toilet hygiene (getting to the toilet, cleaning oneself, and getting back up)

  • Functional mobility, often referred to as "transferring", as measured by the ability to walk, get in and out of bed, and get into and out of a chair; the broader definition (moving from one place to another while performing activities) is useful for people with different physical abilities who are still able to get around independently.

  • Self-feeding (not including cooking or chewing and swallowing)


One way to think about basic ADLs is that they are the things many people do when they get up in the morning and get ready to go out of the house: get out of bed, go to the toilet, bathe, dress, groom, and eat.


IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) (See Also, IADL):

Instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are not necessary for fundamental functioning, but they let an individual live independently in a community:


  • Cleaning and maintaining the house

  • Managing money

  • Moving within the community

  • Preparing meals

  • Shopping for groceries and necessities

  • Taking prescribed medications

  • Using the telephone or other form of communication


Occupational therapists often evaluate IADLs when completing patient assessments. The American Occupational Therapy Association identifies 12 types of IADLs that may be performed as a co-occupation with others:

  • Care of others (including selecting and supervising caregivers)

  • Care of pets

  • Childrearing

  • Communication management

  • Community mobility

  • Financial management

  • Health management and maintenance

  • Home establishment and maintenance

  • Meal preparation and cleanup

  • Religious observances

  • Safety procedures and emergency responses

  • Shopping




Alternative Medicine: 

Alternative medicine is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Alternative medicine is used in place of standard medical care. An example is treating heart disease with chelation therapy (which seeks to remove excess metals from the blood) instead of using a standard approach. Examples of alternative practices include homeopathy, traditional medicine, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Complementary medicine is different from alternative medicine. Whereas complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine. (See also complementary medicine, conventional medicine.)





Pertaining to allopathy (see also conventional medicine) The term was coined in 1842 by C.F.S. Hahnemann to designate the usual practice of medicine as opposed to homeopathy, the system of therapy that he founded.



The system of medical practice which treats disease by the use of remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease under treatment.





Analgesia, loss of sensation of pain that results from an interruption in the nervous system pathway between sense organ and brain. Different forms of sensation (e.g., touch, temperature, and pain) stimulating an area of skin travel to the spinal cord by different nerve fibres in the same nerve bundle. Therefore, any injury or disease affecting the nerve would abolish all forms of sensation in the area supplied by it. When sensory nerves reach the spinal cord, however, their fibres separate and follow different courses to the brain. Thus, it is possible for certain forms of sensation to be lost, while others are preserved, in diseases that affect only certain areas of the spinal cord. Because pain and temperature sensations often travel the same path, both may be lost together. Diseases of the spinal cord that may cause analgesia without loss of the sensation of touch are tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, and tumours of the cord. The term is also used for pain relief induced by the action of such medications as aspirin, codeine, and morphine.






Bowen Theory (a.k.a., Family Systems Theory):

Bowen family systems theory is a theory of human behavior that views the family as an emotional unit and uses systems thinking to describe the complex interactions in the unit. It is the nature of a family that its members are intensely connected emotionally. Often people feel distant or disconnected from their families, but this is more feeling than fact. Families so profoundly affect their members’ thoughts, feelings, and actions that it often seems as if people are living under the same “emotional skin.” People solicit each other’s attention, approval, and support and react to each other’s needs, expectations, and upsets. The connectedness and reactivity make the functioning of family members interdependent. A change in one person’s functioning is predictably followed by reciprocal changes in the functioning of others. Families differ somewhat in the degree of interdependence, but it is always present to some degree. (4)


-To learn more, please click here.





Coaching Towards Balance: 

As it's related to Integrative Wellness Life Coaching, balance means wellness, harmony, and wholeness. 


An Integrative Wellness Life Coach does this through a holistic and integrative approach. By coaching towards balance in all four body systems (the mental, emotional, physical and spiritual systems) we move life coaching from simply counseling and encouraging to fully equipping and empowering clients to make effective, lasting change. 


I strive to teach about the interconnection and effects between all four body systems. What this means is as we move towards balance in the physical body system, we must take the other three (mental, emotional and spiritual) systems into consideration. 


Coaching towards balance isn't about having you dramatically change everything you do. In fact, there is growing research that shows that changing behaviors in order to move towards healthier lifestyles is a science. During our coaching sessions, we will discuss the latest research and work to apply it to your life in small, digestible steps.



Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM):

Complementary medicine: A group of diagnostic and therapeutic disciplines that are used together with conventional medicine. An example of a complementary therapy is using acupuncture in addition to usual care to help lessen a patient's discomfort following surgery.


Complementary medicine is different from alternative medicine. Whereas complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine. An example of an alternative therapy is using a special diet to treat cancer instead of undergoing surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy that has been recommended by a physician. To learn more about CAM, please click here .


Comorbidity (a.k.a.,  Concomitant or Concurrent Disorders/Diseases):

Comorbidity can be defined in several different ways, and there is no consensus about it (see van der Acker et al. 1996). The construct comorbidity was introduced in medicine by Feinstein (1970) to denote the coexistence of two or more diseases, pathological conditions or “clinical entities” in the same patient. This definition includes „any clinically relevant phenomenon separate from the primary disease of interest that occurs while the patient is suffering from the primary disease, even if this secondary phenomenon does not qualify as a disease per se“ (Feinstein 1970).


In general, the term comorbidity has three meanings :

1. two or more medical conditions existing simultaneously but independently with each other;

2. two or more medical conditions existing simultaneously and interdependently with each other what means that one medical condition causes, is caused, or is otherwise related to another condition in the same individual;

3. two or more medical conditions existing simultaneously regardless of their casual relationship. 


The term comorbidity refers to a multitude of different relationships among disorders and diseases


Conventional Medicine:

Medicine as practiced by holders of M.D. (medical doctor) or D.O. (doctor of osteopathy) degrees and by their allied health professionals, such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. Other terms for conventional medicine include allopathy and allopathic medicine; Western medicine, mainstream medicine, orthodox medicine, and regular medicine; and biomedicine.




Do No Harm/First Do No Harm 

(or “primum non nocere,” the Latin translation from the original Greek.)

Used among those involved in the field of healthcare, medicine or bioethics, "First do no harm" pertains to the fact that, in certain cases, it may be better to do nothing rather than intervening and potentially causing more harm than good. 



The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) is the product of more than 10 years of effort by hundreds of international experts in all aspects of mental health. Their dedication and hard work have yielded an authoritative volume that defines and classifies mental disorders in order to improve diagnoses, treatment, and research.




Emotional body system:

The emotions or emotional system is our feelings, emotions, and relationships with self and others, our unconscious mind. 

What falls under this area/system? 

  • Relationships with family + friends

  • Romantic relationships 

  • Self-care/self-treatment/self-love (relationship with self) 

  • Our emotional reactions

  • Emotional life 

  • Some mental health issues such as depression 

  • Unconscious mind

  • Core issues



Evidenced-Based Medicine 

Evidence-based medicine: The judicious use of the best currently available scientific research in making decisions about the care of patients. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is intended to integrate clinical expertise with the research evidence and patient values. To learn more about evidenced-based vs. research-based, please click here.



The distinguishing character, sentiment, moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, group, or institution


-Merriam Websters Dictionary





In essence, the fear-avoidance model posits that when acute pain states are repeatedly misinterpreted as danger signals or signs of serious injury, patients may be at risk of engaging in fear-driven avoidance behaviors and cognitions that further reinforce the belief that pain is a danger signal and perpetuate physical deconditioning. As the cycle continues, avoidance may generalize to broader types of activity and result in hypervigilance of physical sensations characterized by misinformed catastrophic interpretations of physical sensations. Research has shown that a high degree of pain catastrophizing is associated with maintenance of the cycle. Treatments aimed at breaking the fear-avoidance cycle employ systematic graded exposure to feared activities to disconfirm the feared, often catastrophic, consequences of engaging in activities.


Five Stages of Grief (See Also, Grief - The Kübler-Ross Model)

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross developed a model for grieving. The Kübler-Ross model, better known as the five stages of grief, theorized a series of emotions experienced by terminally ill patients prior to death, or people presented by the loss of a loved one. It's important to understand that Kübler-Ross later noted that the stages were not a linear and predictable progression, rather, they are a collation of five common experiences for the bereaved that can occur in any order.


The 5 stages are:  denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance


To read more, please click here. 




Grief - The Kübler-Ross Model

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross developed a model for grieving. The Kübler-Ross model, better known as the five stages of grief, theorized a series of emotions experienced by terminally ill patients prior to death, or people presented by the loss of a loved one. It's important to understand that Kübler-Ross later noted that the stages were not a linear and predictable progression, rather, they are a collation of five common experiences for the bereaved that can occur in any order.


The 5 stages are:  denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance


To read more, please click here. 




Healthcare Sector:

The healthcare sector consists of companies that provide medical services, manufacture medical equipment or drugs, provide medical insurance, or otherwise facilitate the provision of health care to patients.




Holistic Approach:

A term referring to a healthcare philosophy in which the entire patient is evaluated and treated. (3)




Founded in the 19th century, a practice that is based on the concept that disease can be treated with minute doses of drugs thought capable of producing in healthy people the same symptoms as those of the disease being treated. This principle is similar to the concept behind exposure therapy for allergies, but the amounts of active medication used in homeopathy are so small as to be almost undetectable. Scientific studies of homeopathy have returned mixed results. It is considered alternative medicine in the US.




Inside-Out-Outside-In Coaching Model: 

The reason so many of us have experienced the ineffectiveness of trying to will a change (like losing weight or quitting smoking) is likely due to the core issues that are at play. A simple exertion of ones will to try to force change from only the outside-in is about as ineffective for permanent change as telling yourself affirmations but not being in agreement with the new ideas in any capacity. 


To give you an example of this model in practice would be the following scenario: 


Let's imagine a little boy learning to ride his bicycle. He falls and skins his knee. As the caring adult in his life, we would put a band-aid on his knee. But stopping there wouldn't be healing him completely. In order for that to happen, we would need to teach him how to correct the mistake so he doesn't fall again, help him get past his sadness and fear now associated with riding his bike and encourage him to connect with his full abilities.



The word integrative as defined by the dictionary is: Combining allopathic and complementary therapies and/or serving or intending to unify separate things.



- Merriam Websters Dictionary



Integrative Wellness Life Coach: 

A traditional (or general) life coach is someone who typically is known for helping their clients reach a goal or make a change in their life and is customarily defined as a person who counsels and encourages clients on matters having to do with personal challenges.


An Integrative Wellness Life Coach is certified to help their clients reach a goal or make a change in their life and counsel and encourage their clients on matters having to do with personal challenges - BUT unlike traditional life coaches, an Integrative Wellness Life Coach is trained to help their clients gain freedom from the past, by healing core issues and overcoming negative habits and patterns - while

empowering their clients to change their life with effective tools, techniques, and specific action steps


It was for these reasons, founder, Christina H Chororos carefully chose to obtain her certification from Integrative Wellness Academy  



Interdisciplinary Model:

Interdisciplinary care can be provided in acute, chronic, and cancer pain treatment facilities. Moreover, it can be provided along the spectrum from pediatric to geriatric populations. The composition of the team will vary since practice settings differ in size, complexity, resources, and patient populations. Measurement goals will differ depending on type of pain and state of the patient’s disease. However, regardless of the population served, interdisciplinary care is patient-centered, family-centered, and stakeholder centered (ie, case manager, adjustor, employer). Treatment should be holistic, never directed toward an isolated body part or symptom. Efforts are made to achieve empowerment of the patient and his or her caregivers or significant others.

To read more, please click here. 






A time for when conditions are right for the accomplishment of a crucial action; the opportune and decisive moment


-Merriam Websters Dictionary





Mind-Body Medicine:

Mind-body medicine uses the power of thoughts and emotions to influence physical health. As Hippocrates once wrote, "The natural healing force within each one of us is the greatest force in getting well." 


The key to any mind-body technique is to "train" the mind to focus on the body without distraction. In this state of "focused concentration," a person may be able to improve their health. Some of the most commonly used techniques include:


Biofeedback: With biofeedback, people are trained to control certain bodily processes that normally occur involuntarily, such as heart rate or blood pressure. These processes can be measured and displayed on a monitor that the person watches. The monitor provides feedback about the internal workings of your body. You can then use this display to gain control over these "involuntary" activities -- lowering your blood pressure, for example. Biofeedback is effective for a number of conditions, but it is most often used to treat tension headache, migraine headache, and chronic pain.

Cognitive behavioral therapy: This technique is used to help people recognize and change harmful thoughts. For example, people with phobias might deliberately expose themselves, under the direction and guidance of a therapist, to what they are afraid of. Or people who are depressed can learn to counter negative thoughts and feelings with positive ones.


Relaxation techniques: There are 3 major types of relaxation techniques:

  • Autogenic training: This technique uses both visual imagery and body awareness to create a deep state of relaxation. You imagine a peaceful place and then focus on different physical sensations, moving from your feet to your head. For example, you might focus on feeling that your arms and legs are heavy and warm; on your breath; or on a calm heartbeat.

  • Progressive muscle relaxation: This technique involves slowly tensing and then releasing each muscle group in your body, starting with your toes and finishing with your head.

  • Meditation: The 2 most popular forms of meditation in the U.S. are transcendental meditation and mindfulness meditation. In transcendental meditation, students repeat a mantra (a single word or phrase). In mindfulness meditation, students focus their attention on their moment by moment thoughts and sensations.

  • Hypnosis: During hypnosis, a person's body relaxes while their thoughts become more focused and attentive. In this state of deep concentration, some people are highly responsive to a hypnotherapist's suggestions. Many mental health professionals use hypnosis to treat people with addictions, pain, anxiety disorders, and phobias.

  • Spirituality: Researchers have been studying how spiritual beliefs, attitudes, and practices affect health. In a recent study on people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for example, those who had faith in God, compassion toward others, a sense of inner peace, and were religious had a better chance of surviving for a long time with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) than those who did not have such faith or practices. Research suggests that qualities like faith, hope, and forgiveness, and using prayer and social support, have a noticeable effect on health and healing.


Mental body system:

The Mind or Mental system is the area of our thought life, self-perceptions and patterns. 

What falls under this area/system?

  • Conscious thought 

  • Thought patterns 

  • Self-perception + self-image 

  • Model of the world, perceptions + beliefs (individual's reality) 

  • Our values 

  • Our goals 

  • Mindset




Mental, emotional, physical and spiritual body systems. 





The late Senator Claude Pepper recognized the importance of computerized information processing methods for the conduct of biomedical research and sponsored legislation that established the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) on November 4, 1988, as a division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NLM was chosen for its experience in creating and maintaining biomedical databases, and because as part of NIH, it could establish an intramural research program in computational molecular biology. The collective research components of NIH make up the largest biomedical research facility in the world.




Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia (OIH):

Defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. The condition is characterized by a paradoxical response whereby a patient receiving opioids for the treatment of pain could actually become more sensitive to certain painful stimuli





Patient-centered care:

The IOM (Institute of Medicine) defines patient-centered care as: “Providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions.”


Physical body system:

The physical system or the body system is our physical health and the physical things we have or do not have in our lives also known as the things we create tangibility in our lives. 

What falls under this area/system?

  • Health 

  • Physical strength 

  • Energy 

  • Outer appearance 

  • Things people have or do not have in their lives (the tangible)





Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Advancing Pain Research, Care, and Education.

Source: Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. 


"The Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, has requested that the IOM (Institute of Medicine) convene the ad hoc committee to address the current state of the science with respect to pain research, care, and education; and explore approaches to advance the field. Specifically, the committee will: Review and quantify the public health significance of pain, including the adequacy of assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of acute and chronic pain in the United States. This effort will take a comprehensive view of chronic pain as a biological, biobehavioral, and societal condition. Identify barriers to appropriate pain care and strategies to reduce such barriers, including exploring the importance of individualized approaches to diagnosis and treatment of pain. Identify demographic groups and special populations, including older adults, individuals with co-morbidities, and cognitive impairment, that may be disparately undertreated for pain, and discuss related research needs, barriers particularly associated with these demographic groups, and opportunities to reduce such barriers. Identify and discuss what scientific tools and technologies are available, what strategies can be employed to enhance training of pain researchers, and what interdisciplinary research approaches will be necessary in the short and long-term to advance basic, translational, and clinical pain research and improve the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and management of pain. Discuss opportunities for public–private partnerships in the support and conduct of pain research, care, and education."


- NCBI, US National Library of MedicineNational Institutes of Health





Spiritual body system:

The Spirit or Spiritual system is our true self, our personal development, and connection with energy/God/higher self/Higher power/Collective unconscious and spiritual life. 

What falls under this area/system? 

  • Personal growth 

  • Personal development 

  • Energy 

  • Self-healing 

  • Unconditional love 

  • Connection to God/HS/HP/CU

  • Connection to all 


SMART Goals:

SMART is an acronym that you can use to guide your goal setting.

Its criteria are commonly attributed to Peter Drucker's Management by Objectives  concept. The first known use of the term occurs in the November 1981 issue of Management Review by George T. Doran. Since then, Professor Robert S. Rubin (Saint Louis University) wrote about SMART in an article for The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. He stated that SMART has come to mean different things to different people, as shown below.


To make sure your goals are clear and reachable, each one should be:

  • Specific (simple, sensible, significant).

  • Measurable (meaningful, motivating).

  • Achievable (agreed, attainable).

  • Relevant (reasonable, realistic and resourced, results-based).

  • Time-bound (time-based, time-limited, time/cost limited, timely, time-sensitive).


Professor Rubin also notes that the definition of the SMART acronym may need updating to reflect the importance of efficacy and feedback. However, some authors have expanded it to include extra focus areas; SMARTER, for example, includes Evaluated and Reviewed.







Western Medicine  

Conventional medicine, as distinct from an alternative form of medicine such as ayurvedic or traditional Chinese medicine.




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References + Cited Articles:

pg 108 has a glossary of terms you can include


(2)Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Pain, Disability, and Chronic Illness Behavior; Osterweis M, Kleinman A, Mechanic D, editors. Pain and Disability: Clinical, Behavioral, and Public Policy Perspectives. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1987. 9, Psychiatric Aspects of Chronic Pain. Available from:


(3) holistic approach. (n.d.) Segen's Medical Dictionary. (2011). Retrieved June 18 2018 from


(4) Kerr, Michael E. “One Family’s Story: A Primer on Bowen Theory.” The Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. 2000.


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